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Steven D. Schaefer, MD, FACS

Steven D. Schaefer, MD, FACS

The Center for Cranial Base Surgery

The Center for Voice & Swallowing Disorders

The Center for Sinus & Allergy

Clinical Offices

130 East 77th Street
Black Hall
New York, NY 10075
Patient Appointments: (212) 434-4500
Fax: (212) 434-4597

Academic Appointments

  • Director, Center for Sinus & Nasal Disorders, New York Head & Neck- Institute
  • Director, Academic Programs and Development, New York Head & Neck-Institute
  • Professor of Otolaryngology, New York Medical College

About Steven Schaefer MD, FACS

Dr. Steven Schaefer is an internationally recognized Otolaryngologist who has trained and lectured to more than 30,000 physicians worldwide on the treatment of acute/chronic sinusitis.

Dr. Steven Schaefer was among the first American physicians to train in Europe in minimally invasive or functional endoscopic sinus surgery. This work led to authoring textbooks and reports introducing surgical techniques for ethmoid and frontal sinus surgery, orbital surgery for thyroid eye disease (a.k.a., Grave’s Disease), optic nerve decompression, improving lacrimal duct drainage (DCR, Dacryocystorhinostomy), repair of cerebral spinal fluid fistulas into the nose, and open and endoscopic resection of nasal and skull base tumors.


  • Undergraduate – University of California, Berkeley, magna cum laude
  • Medical School – University of California, Irvine


  • General Surgery — University of California, Los Angeles
  • Otolaryngology — Stanford University, Palo Alto


  • Research, Neurophysiology – Sponsor, National Institutes of Health

Board Certification

  • American Board of Otolaryngology

Awards and Recognition (Partial listing) for Steven Schaefer MD

  • Sigma Xi, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
  • Medical Member; Appointed by Governor Mark White to Texas Board of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology
  • America’s Top Doctors, Castle-Connolly; Best Doctors in America, Best Doctors in USA, LLC; Best Doctors, American Health Magazine; Best Doctors, New York Magazine; Who’s Who in Medicine and Healthcare, and Who’s Who in Science and Engineering, Marquis Who’s Who, LLC
  • Research and/or Honor Awards from American Academy of Otolaryngology, American Cancer Society, American Laryngological Association, American Speech and Hearing Association

Professional Affiliations

  • Fellow/Member – American Academy of Otolaryngology, American Cancer Society, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Head and Neck Surgery, American Laryngological Association, American Rhinological Society, Association of Academic Departments of Otolaryngology, North American Skull Base Society, Society of University Otolaryngologists (past President), Triological Society (American Laryngological, Rhinological and Laryngological Society, Vice-President - Eastern Section)
  • National Institutes of Health, Division of Research Grants, Special Sensory and Language Study Section, Member 1988 – 1992
  • Professor and Chair, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Chief of Otolaryngology Parkland Memorial Hospital of Dallas and Adjunct Professor of Communicative Sciences, Callier Center, University of Texas at Dallas, 1977 – 1992
  • Professor and Chair, Department of Otolaryngology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary and New York Medical College, 1992 – 2011

Clinical Trials and Research Interests

  • Principle or Co-Investigator – NIH, Veterans Administration, American Cancer Society and private foundations grants in the areas of laryngeal disorders, 1980 – present
  • Clinical trials in laryngeal, sinus and swallowing disorders

Publications by Steven Schaefer MD (Books)

  1. Rice D and Schaefer S: Endoscopic Paranasal Sinus Surgery. Raven Press, New York, 1988.
  2. Rice D and Schaefer S: Endoscopic Paranasal Sinus Surgery. Second Edition. Raven Press, New York, 1992.
  3. Schaefer SD: Rhinology and Sinus Disease. A Problem Oriented Approach. Mosby Year Book, Philadelphia, 1998.
  4. Wackym PA, Rice DH and Schaefer SD: Minimally Invasive Surgery of the Head, Neck and Cranial Base. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 2001.
  5. Rice D and Schaefer S: Endoscopic Paranasal Sinus Surgery. Third Edition. Lippencott, Philadelphia, 2003.
  6. Weber RK, Keerl R, Schaefer SD and Della Rocca RC: Atlas of Lacrimal Surgery. Springer, New York, 2007.

Publications by Steven Schaefer MD (Monographs)

  1. Stringer SP and Schaefer SD: Acute Laryngeal Trauma SIPac. Am Acad Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, Washington DC, 1990.
  2. Schaefer SD: Endoscopy of the Paranasal Sinuses. R. Wolf, Chicago, 1989.
  3. Leach J and Schaefer SD: Carcinoma of the Glottis SIPac. Am Acad Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, Washington DC, 1993.
  4. Schaefer SD and Leach J: Carcinoma of the Glottis SIPac, 2nd Edition. Am Acad Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, Washington DC, 1999.
  5. Schaefer SD and: Stringer SP: Acute Laryngeal Trauma SIPac, 2nd Edition. Am Acad Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, Washington DC, 2001.
  6. Schaefer SD and Pitman M: Carcinoma of the Glottis SIPac, 3rd Edition. Am Acad Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, Washington DC, 2007.

Publications by Steven Schaefer MD (Journal Articles)

  1. Schaefer SD and Fee WE: Allergic Vasculitis. Arch Otolaryngol 102:756-759, 1976.
  2. Schaefer SD and Fee WE: Thyroid Surgery: Surgical and metabolic causes of hypocalcemia. Arch Otolaryngol 104:263-266, 1978.
  3. Dahm LJ, Schaefer SD, Carder HM and Vellios F: Osteosarcoma of the soft tissue of the Larynx. Cancer 42:2343-2351, 1978.
  4. Jones RE, Bucholz RW, Schaefer SD, Mumme M and Carder HM: Cervical osteomyelitis complicating transpharyngeal gunshot wounds of the neck. J Trauma 19:630-634, 1979.
  5. Griffin JE, Altenau MM and Schaefer SD: Bilateral longitudinal temporal bone fractures: a retrospective review of seventeen cases. Laryngoscope 89:1432-1435, 1979.
  6. Schaefer SD, Denton RA, Blend BL and Carder HM: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the frontal sinus. Laryngoscope 90:2021-2026, 1980.
  7. Schaefer SD and Hill GC: Epidermoid carcinoma of the nasal vestibule: Current treatment evaluation. Laryngoscope 90:1631-1635, 1980.
  8. Trone TH, Schaefer SD and Carder HM: Blunt and penetrating laryngeal trauma: A 13-year review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 88:257-261, 1980.
  9. Schaefer SD, Diehl JT and Briggs WH: The diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhea by metrizamide CT scanning. Laryngoscope 90:871-875, 1980.
  10. Schaefer SD, Blend BL and Denton JG: Laryngeal paragangliomas: Evaluation and treatment Am J Otolaryngol 1:451-455, 1980.
  11. Schaefer SD, Byrd HS and Holmes RE: Forehead and scalp reconstruction after wide-field resection of carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol 106:680-684, 1980.
  12. Schaefer SD and Carder HM: Fabrication of a simple laryngeal stent. Laryngoscope 90:l56l-1563, l980.
  13. Schaefer SD, Askew BL and Frank CR: Limitations of the neoglottis procedure: A preliminary report. Tex J Audiol Speech Path 5:8-10, 1980.
  14. Schaefer SD, Bucholz RW, Jones RE and Carder HM: Management of transpharyngeal gunshot wounds to the cervical spine. Surg Gyn & Obst 152:27-20, 1981.
  15. Schaefer SD, Bucholz RW, Jones RE, Anderson RG and Carder HM: Treatment of transpharyngeal missile wounds to the cervical spine. Laryngoscope 91:146-148, 1981.
  16. Schaefer SD, Wright CG, Post JD and Frenkel EP: Cis-platinum vestibular toxicity. Cancer 47:857-859, 1981.
  17. Schaefer SD, Anderson RG and Carder HM: Epidural mucopyocele: Diagnosis and management. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 89:523-527, 1981.
  18. Anderson R, Diehl J, Maravilla K, Fancher J and Schaefer SD: Computerized axial tomography with air contrast of the cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal. Laryngoscope 91:1083-1097, 1981.
  19. Burns DK and Schaefer SD: Nasal chondroma. Arch Otolaryngol 108:58-61, 1982.
  20. Finitzo-Heiber T, Freeman FJ, Gerling IJ, Dobson L and Schaefer SD: Auditory brainstem response abnormalities in adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Am J Otolaryngol 3:26-30, 1982.
  21. Schaefer SD, Wassberg G and Heaton S: Monophasic appliance fixation for mandibular fractures and reconstruction. Ann Otolaryngol 91:292-296, 1982.
  22. Wright CG, Rouse RC Hubbard DG and Schaefer SD: A calcareous concretion in the posterior sericircular duct of a human labyrinth. Am J Otolaryngol 3:196-201, 1982.
  23. Schaefer SD and Johns D: Attaining functional esophageal speech. Arch Otolaryngol 108:647-649, 1982.
  24. Schaefer SD, Merkel M, Diehl J, Maravilla K and Anderson R: CT assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and pharyngeal cavities. Arch Otolaryngol 108:688-692, 1982.
  25. Wright CG and Schaefer SD: Inner ear histopathology of patients treated with cis-platinum. Laryngoscope 92:1408-1413, 1982.
  26. Schaefer SD: Primary management of laryngeal trauma. Ann Otolaryngol 91:399-402, 1982.
  27. Anderson RG, Olsen J, Merkel M and Schaefer SD: Computerized tomographic scanning with air contrast of the internal auditory canal. Ann Otolaryngol 91:501-505, 1982.
  28. Freeman FJ and Schaefer SD: Theory and research of voice disorders. Eleventh International Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice. New York. The Voice Foundation, 1982.
  29. Freeman FJ and Schaefer SD: Diagnosis and treatment of voice disorders. Eleventh International Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice. New York. The Voice Foundation, 1982.
  30. Schaefer SD, Freeman FJ and Finitzo-Heiber T: Brainstem conduction abnormalities in spasmodic dysphonia. Ann Otolaryngol 92:59-63, 1983.
  31. Bain WM, Harrington JW Thomas LE and Schaefer SD: Head and neck manifestations of gastro-esophageal reflux. Laryngoscope 93:175-179, 1983.
  32. Schaefer SD, Middleton R, Reisch J and Frenkel E: Cis-platinum induction chemotherapy in the multiple modality initial treatment of advanced stage IV carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer 51:2168-2174, 1983.
  33. Hong WK, Schaefer SD, Issell B, Cummings C, Leuedke D, Bromer R, Fofonoff S, D'Aoust J, Shapshay S, Welch J, Levin E, Vincent M, Vaugh C and Strong S: A prospective randomized trial of methotrexate versus cis-Platinum in the treatment of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer 52:206-2l0, 1983.
  34. Schaefer SD and Brown OE: Selective application of CT in the management of laryngeal trauma. Laryngoscope 93:1473-1475, 1983.
  35. Close LG, Lozano AJ and Schaefer SD: Sternohyoid myo-osseous flap for the treatment of acquired subglottic stenosis in children. Laryngoscope 93:433-439, 1983.
  36. Schaefer SD: The neuropathology of spasmodic dysphonia. Laryngoscope 93:1183-1204, 1983.
  37. Lee JW, Schaefer SD and Anderson RG: An otolaryngology surgical coding and reporting system. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 92:413-417, 1984.
  38. Anderson RG, Shannon DN, Schaefer SD and Raney LA: A surgical alternative to internal maxillary artery ligation for posterior epistaxis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 92:427-433, 1984.
  39. Schaefer SD, Merkel M, Burns DK and Close LG: CT assessment of upper aerodigestive tract squamous cell carcinoma post induction chemotherapy. Arch Otolaryngol 110:236-240, 1984.
  40. Anderson R, Olson J, Dowart R, Merkel M and Schaefer SD: CT air-contrast scanning of the internal auditory canal. Trans Amer Otological Society. 70:121-125, 1982.
  41. Schaefer SD, Freeman F, Finitzo T. MRI findings and correlations in spasmodic dysphonia patients. Ann Otolaryngol l94:595-601, 1985.
  42. Schaefer SD and Ronis M: Cephalexin in the treatment of maxillary sinusitis. South Med J 78:45-47, 1985.
  43. Schaefer SD, Maravilla KR, Close LG. Evaluation of NMR versus CT for parotid masses. Laryngoscope 95:945-950, 1985.
  44. Close LG, Mickey BE, Samson DS and Schaefer SD: Resection of upper aerodigestive tract tumors involving the middle cranial fossa. Laryngoscope 95:908-914, 1985.
  45. Schaefer SD, Henderson AH, Glover E and Christen AG: Patterns of use and incidence of smokeless tobacco consumption in school-age children. Arch Otolaryngol 111:639-642, 1985.
  46. Schaefer SD, Maravilla KR, Suss RA. Magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography - comparison in imaging oral cavity and pharyngeal carcinomas. Arch Otolaryngol 111:730-734, 1985.
  47. Hendler FJ, Richards CS, Shum A, Burns D, Schaefer S and Ozanne B: Nuclear mechanisms for the increase of epidermal growth factor receptor in squamous cell carcinoma. Trans Assoc Amer Phys 98:189-197, 1985.
  48. Schaefer SD, Post J, Close LG and Wright C: Ototoxicity of low and moderate dose cis-platinum. Cancer 56:l934-l939, l985.
  49. Schaefer SD, Close LG, and Mickey B: Axial subcutaneous flaps in the reconstruction of the anterior cranial fossa floor. Arch Otolaryngol ll2:745-749, l986.
  50. Close LG, Merkel M, Burns DK and Schaefer SD: Computed tomography in the assessment of mandibular invasion by intraoral carcinoma. Ann Otolaryngol 95:383-388, 1986.
  51. Schaefer SD, Close LG and Brown OE: Mobilization of the fixated arytenoid in the stenotic posterior laryngeal commissure. Laryngoscope 96:656-659, 1986.
  52. Rutledge J, Schaefer SD, Simpson R and Anderson RG: Congenital hybrid basal cell adenoma-adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands. Ped Pathology 6:199-208, 1986.
  53. Close LG, Merkel M, Burns DK, Deaton CW (Jr) and Schaefer SD: The asymptomatic laryngocele, incidence and association with laryngeal cancer. Ann Otolaryngol 96:393-399, 1987.
  54. Finitzo T, Pool K, Freeman F, Cannito M, Schaefer SD, Ross E, and Devous M: Spasmodic dysphonia subsequent to head trauma. Arch Otolaryngol 113:1107-1110, 1987.
  55. Schaefer SD, Close LG and Reisch J: Conservation of the hypopharyngeal mucous membrane in total laryngectomy. Arch Otolaryngol 113:49l-495, 1987.v
  56. Close LG and Schaefer SD: The over projecting nasal tip: Precise reduction without rotation. Laryngoscope 97:931-936, 1987.
  57. Close LG, Merkel M, Watson B and Schaefer SD: Crico-arytenoid subluxation, CT and EMG findings. Arch Otolaryngol 9:341-348, 1987.
  58. Close LG, Burns DK, Reisch J and Schaefer SD: Microvascular invasion in cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Arch Otolaryngol 113:1191-1195, 1987.
  59. Schaefer SD, Watson B, Freeman F, Kondraske G, Pool K, Dembowski J, Mehdi J, Close L. Devous M, Chapman S and Finitzo T: Vocal tract electromyographic abnormalities in spasmodic dysphonia: A preliminary report. Trans Amer Laryngol Assoc 108:187-196, 1987.
  60. Stringer SP, Schaefer SD and Close LG: A randomized trial for outpatient management of peritonsillar abscess. Arch Otolaryngol ll4:296-298, l988.
  61. Mickey BE, Close LG, Samson DF and Schaefer SD: A combined infratemporal fossa and lateral frontotemporal approach to the skull base. J Neurosurg 4:678-683, 1988.
  62. Schaefer SD, Close LG and Mickey BE: The surgical management of epidural mucoceles. Laryngoscope 98:14-17, 1988.
  63. Schaefer SD, Merritt J and Close LG: Orbital decompression for optic neuropathy secondary to thyroid disease. Laryngoscope 98:712-716, 1988.
  64. Schaefer SD, Close LG and Manning SC: Endoscopic paranasal sinus surgery: Indications and considerations. Laryngoscope 99:1-5, 1989.
  65. Schaefer SD and CLose LG: The acute management of laryngeal trauma: An update. Ann Otol Rhinol 98:98-104, 1989.
  66. Close LG, Merkel M, Reisch J, Burns DK and Schaefer SD: Silent supraglottic carcinoma: Early identification and diagnosis. Otolayngol-Head Neck Surg 99:286-295, l988.
  67. Freeman FJ, Schaefer SD, Cannito M and Finitzo T: Episodic reactive dysphonia. J Comm Disord 20:259-263, l987.
  68. Close LG, Merkel M, Vuitch F, Reisch J and Schaefer SD: Computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of regional lymph node involvement in cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Head and Neck Surg ll:309-3l7, l989.
  69. Close LG, Schaefer SD, Mickey BE, Manning SC: Surgical Management of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving the cavernous sinus. Arch Otolaryngol ll5:l09l-l095, l989.
  70. Close LG, Brown MP, Vuitch MF, Reisch J, Schaefer SD: Microvascular invasion and survival in cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Arch Otolaryngol ll3:ll9l-ll95, l989.
  71. Finitzo T, Freeman FJ, [and Dallas Center Vocal Motor Control (Cannito M, Chapman SB, Close LG, Devous MD, Feldman M, Kondraske GV, Mendelsohn D, Pool KD, Schaefer SD, Watson BC)]: Spasmodic Dysphonia whether and where: Results of seven years of research. JASHA 32:54l-555, l989.v
  72. Schaefer, SD and Close, LG: The acute management of laryngeal trauma: An Update I. Trans Amer Laryngol Assoc 109: 108-114, 1988.
  73. Schaefer SD, Close, LG: Endoscopic management of frontal sinus disease. Laryngoscope 100:155-160, 1990.
  74. Schaefer, SD: The acute surgical treatment of the fractured larynx. Oper Techniq Otolaryngol-Head and Neck Surg 1:64-70, 1990.
  75. Schaefer SD, Close LG: Endoscopic management of frontal sinus disease. Laryngoscope 100:155-160, 1990.
  76. Schaefer SD: Endoscopic frontal sinusotomy. Oper Techniq Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 1:128-130, 1990.
  77. Schaefer SD: Endoscopic spheno-ethmoidectomy: Posterior approach. Oper Techniq Otolaryn¬gol-Head Neck Surg 1: 104-107, 1990.
  78. Rice DH, Weymuller EA, Kennedy DW and Schaefer SD: Difficult decisions: In endoscopic sinus surgery. Oper Techniq Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 1:145-148, 1990.
  79. Roark RM, Schaefer SD, Kondraske G, Watson WB, and Dembowski J: Quantification of dynamic electromyographic and kinematic activity of the human vocal tract II. Ann Otolaryngol 99:902-910, 1990.
  80. Schaefer SD: State of the art: The acute treatment of external laryngeal injuries. Arch Otolaryngol 117:35-39, 1991.
  81. Manning SC, Schaefer SD, Close LC and Vuitch F: Culture positive allergic fungal sinusitis. Arch Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 117:174-178, 1991.
  82. Watson BC, Schaefer SD, Freeman FJ, Dembowski J, Kondraske G, Roark R: Laryngeal electromyographic activity in adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia. JSHR 34:473-482, 1991.
  83. Pool K, Freeman F, Finitzo T, Hayashi M, Chapman S, Devous M, Close L, Kondraske G, Mendelson D, Schaefer S, Watson B: Clinical heterogeneity in spasmodic dysphonia: Neurologic and voice findings. Arch Neurol 48:305-309, 1991
  84. Watson BC, Freeman FJ, Pool KD, Devous MD, Mendelsohn D, Schaefer SD, Chapman SB, Close LG, Finitzo T and Kondraske GV: Laryngeal reaction time profiles in spasmodic dysphonia: Relationship to cortical electrophysiologic abnormality. JSHD 34:269-277, 1991.
  85. Schaefer S, Roark R, Watson B, Kondraske G, Freeman F, Butsch R, Devous M, Pool K, Pohl J and Finitzo T: Multichannel electromyographic observations in spasmodic dysphonic patients and normal control subjects. Ann Otol Rhinol 101:67-75, 1992.
  86. Roark RM, Schaefer SD, Kondraske G, Watson WB, and Dembowski J: Quantification of dynamic electromyographic and kinematic activity of the human vocal tract II. Trans Amer Laryngol Assoc 111:83-91, 1990.
  87. Manning SC, Mabry RL, Schaefer SD and Close LG: Evidence of IgE medicated hypersensitivity in allergic funal sinusitis. Laryngoscope 103:717-721, 1993.
  88. Department of Veterans Affairs Laryngeal Study Group: Induction chemotherapy plus radiation compared with surgery plus radiation in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer: N Eng J Med 324:1685-1690, 1991.
  89. Schaefer S. Acute management of external laryngeal trauma: A 27 year experience. Arch Otolaryngol 118:598-605, 1992.
  90. Devous MD, Pool KD, Finitzo T, Freeman FJ, Schaefer SD, Watson BC, Kondraske GV and Chapman SB: Evidence for cortical dysfunction in spasmodic dysphonia: regional cerebral blood flow and quantitative electrophysiology. Brain Lang 39:331-344, 1993.
  91. Leach J, Manning S and Schaefer S: Comparison of two methods of tonsillectomy. Laryngoscope 103:619-622, l993.
  92. Schaefer SD: Is there a role for educators in health care? Arch Otolaryngol 120:585-586, 1994
  93. Watson BC, McIntire D, Roark RM and Schaefer SD: Statistical analysis of electromyographic activity in spasmodic dysphonia and normal control subjects. J. Voice 9:3-15, l995.
  94. Roark RM, Dowling EM, Degroat RD, Watson BC and Schaefer SD: Time-frequency analyses of thyroarytenoid myoelectric activity in normal and spasmodic dysphonia subjects. JSHR 38:289-303, l995.
  95. Stammberger HR, Bolger WE, Clement PAR, Hosemann WG, Kuhn FA, Lanza DC, Leopold DA, Ohnishi T, Passali D, Schaefer SD, Wayoff MR and Zinreich SJ: Anatomic terminology and nomenclature in sinusitis. Ann Otol Rhinol 104:Suppl 167, l995.
  96. Lazarus P, Garewal HS, Sciubba J, Zwiebel N, Calcagnotto A, Fair A, Schaefer S and Richie JP: Incidence of p53 mutations in premalignant lesions of the oral cavity from non-tobacco users. Internat J Cancer 60:458-463, l995.
  97. Roark R, Schaefer S and Watson B: Wavelet analysis of EMG during laryngeal spasm. Trans Amer Laryngol Assoc 117:40, 1996.
  98. Hadley JA and Schaefer SD: Clinical evaluation of rhinosinusitis: history and physical examination. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117:S8-S11, l997.
  99. Frank DK, Wenk E, Stern JC, Gottlieb RD, Schaefer SD, Moscatello AL: A cadaveric study of the motor nerves to the levator scapulae muscle. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117:671-80,1997.
  100. Schaefer SD: An anatomic approach to endoscopic intranasal ethmoidectomy. Laryngoscope.108:1628-1634, 1998.
  101. Spencer R, Das K, , Nwagwu C, Schaefer S, Wenk E, Weiss M and Couldwell W: Approaches to the sellar and suprasellar region: Anatomic comparison of endoscope versus microscope. Laryngoscope 109:791-794, 1999.
  102. Hillel AD, Benninger M, Blitzer A, Crumley R, Flint P, Kashima H, Sanders I and Schaefer S: The evaluation and management of bilateral vocal cord immobility. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:760-759, 1999.
  103. Sabit A, Couldwell W and Schaefer S: Extradural extranasal combined transmaxillary transsphenoid approach to the cavernous sinus: A minimally invasive approach. Laryngoscope 110:286-291, 2000.
  104. Weber R, Draf W, Kratzsch W, Hosemann W and Schaefer S: Modern concepts of frontal sinus surgery. Laryngoscope 111:137-146, 2001.
  105. Das K, Spencer R, Nwagwu C, Schaefer S, Wenk E, Weiss M and Couldwell W: Approaches to the sellar and suprasellar region: Anatomic comparison of endonasal-transsphenoidal, sublabial-transsphenoidal and transethmoidal approaches. Neurol Res 23:1-4, 2001.
  106. Branovan DI, Schaefer SD: Lateral craniofacial approach to the skull base and infratemporal fossa. Otolaryngol Clin N Amer 34:1175-95, 2001.
  107. Roark RM, Li JCL, Schaefer SD, Adam A and DeLuca CJ: Multiple motor unit recordings of laryngeal muscles: The technique of vector laryngeal electromyography. Laryngoscope 112:2196-2203, 2002.
  108. Sabit I, Schaefer SD and Couldwell WT: Modified infratemporal fossa approach via lateral transantral maxillotomy: A microsurgical model. Skull Base 58:21-31, 2002.
  109. Schaefer SD, Soliemanzadeh P, Della Rocca DA, Yoo G, Maher EA, Milite JP, and Della Rocca RC: Endoscopic and transconjunctival orbital decompression for thyroid related orbital apex compression. Laryngoscope 113:508-513, 2003.
  110. Liu JK, Decker D, Schaefer SD, Moscatello AL, Orlandi RR, Weiss MH, and Couldwell WT: Zones of approach for craniofacial resection: Minimizing facial incisions for resection of anterior cranial base and paranasal sinus tumors. Neurosurgery 53:1126-1137, 2003.
  111. Keerl R, Weber RK, Draf W, Wienke A and Schaefer SD: Use of sodium fluorescein solution for detection of cerebralspinal fluid fistulas: An analysis of 420 administrations and reported complications in Europe and the United States. Laryngoscope 114:266-272, 2004.
  112. Liu JK, Schaefer SD, Moscatello AL, and Caldwell WT: Neurosurgical implications of allergic fungal sinusitis. J Neurosurg 100:883-890, 2004.
  113. Tardi K, Chang Y, Ashok BT, Chen Y, Moscatello A, Schaefer SD, Schantz SP, Policastro AJ, Geilebter and Tiwari RJ: 3,3’-Diindolymethane, a cruciferous vegetable derived synthetic anti-proliferative compound in thyroid disease. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 337:1019-1025, 2005.
  114. Stiefel M and Schaefer SD: The Edwin Smith Papyrus: The birth of analytical thinking in medicine and otolaryngology. Laryngoscope 116:182-188, 2006.
  115. Schaefer SD, Li JL, Chan E, Wu BZ, and Branovan DI: Combined anterior-to-posterior and posterior-to-anterior approach to paranasal sinus surgery: An update. Laryngoscope 116:509-513, 2006.
  116. Roark R, Schaefer S, Lee W and Peterson S: Assessing and documenting general competencies in otolaryngology resident training programs. Laryngoscope 116:682-95, 2006.
  117. Surianu R, Lin Y, Schaefer SD, Schantz SP, Geliebter J, Tewari RK: Pilot study using SELDI-TOF-MS based proteomic profile for the identification of diagnostic biomarkers of thyroid proliferative diseases. J Proteome Res. 5:856-61, 2006.
  118. Altman KW, Schaefer SD, Yu GP, Hertegard S, Lundy DS, Blumin JH, Maronian NC, Heman-Ackah YD, Abitbol J, Casiano RR. Neurolaryngology subcommittee of Amer Acad Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136:873-886, 2007.
  119. Yalamanchili H, Sclafani AP, Schaefer SD, Presti P. The path of nasal reconstruction from ancient India to present. Facial Plast Surg. 24:3-10, 2008.
  120. Tessema B, Pitman MJ, Roark RM, Berzofsky C, Sharma S, Schaefer S: Evaluation of functional recovery of recurrent laryngeal nerve using trans-oral laryngeal bipolar electromyography: a rat model. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 117:604-608, 2008.
  121. Márquez1 S, Belachew T, Peter AR Clement PAR, and Schaefer SD: Development of the Ethmoid Sinus and Extramural Migration: The Anatomical Basis of this Paranasal Sinus. Anat Record 291:1535-1553, 2008.
  122. Sclafani AP and Schaefer SD: Concurrent endoscopic sinus surgery and cosmetic rhinoplasty: Rationale, risks, rewards and reality. Laryngoscope 119:778-7791, 2009.
  123. Tessema B, Roark RM, Pitman MJ, Weissbroad P, Sharma S and Schaefer SD: Observations of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and recovery using a rat model. Laryngoscope 119:1644-1651, 2009.
  124. Fried MP, Sadoughi B, Gibber MJ, Jacobs JB, Lebowitz RA, Ross DA, Bent JP 3rd, Parikh SR, Sasaki CT, Schaefer SD. From virtual reality to the operating room: The endoscopic sinus surgery simulator experiment. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 142:202-7, 2010.
  125. Toth M, Selivanova O, Schaefer S, Mann W: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Laryngoscope 120:1724-1728, 2010.
  126. Weissbrod P, Pitman MJ, Sharma S, Bender A, Schaefer SD: Quantity and three-dimensional position of the recurrent and superior laryngeal nerve lower motor neurons in a rat model. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2011 Nov;120(11):761-8.
  127. Pitman MJ, Weissbrod P, Roark R, Sharma S, Schaefer SD: Electromyographic and histologic evolution of the recurrent laryngeal nerve from the transection and anastomosis to mature reinnervation. Laryngoscope Feb;121(2):325-31.
  128. Altman KW, Yu GP, Schaefer SD: Consequence of dysphagia in the hospitalized patient: impact on prognosis and hospital resources. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012 Aug; 126(8):784-9.
  129. Fried MP, Sadoughi B, Gibber MJ, Jacobs JB, Lebowitz RA, Ross DA, Bent JP 3rd, Parikh SR, Sasaki CT, Schaefer SD: From virtual reality to the operating room: the endoscopic sinus surgery simulator experiment. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2010 Feb;142(2):202-7.

Publications by Steven Schaefer MD (Invited Papers)

  1. Schaefer SD and Freeman FJ: Spasmodic Dysphonia. Otolaryngol Clin N America 20:161-178, 1987.
  2. Schaefer SD: Endoscopic Total Sphenoethmoidectomy. Otolaryngol Clin N Amer, 22:727-732, l989.
  3. Schaefer SD: Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. Collected Letters Intl Correspondence Soc Otolaryngol 34:l29-l3l, l989.
  4. Schaefer SD: Utilization of CT scanning in the acute management of the injured larynx. Otolaryngol Clin N Amer 24:31-36, 1991.
  5. Schaefer SD: Electromyography of the larynx. Otolaryngol Clin N Amer 24:1053-1057, 1991.
  6. Rice DH, Kennedy D, Schaefer SD and Weymuller EA: Difficult decisions in endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Clin N Amer 26:695-700, 1993.
  7. Shechtman FG, Kraus WM and Schaefer SD: Anatomy Paranasal sinuses. Otolaryngol Clin N Amer 26:509-516, 1993.
  8. Patt B, Schaefer S and Vuitch F: Fine needle aspiration biopsy in the head and neck malignancies. Med Clin N Amer 77:611-623, 1993.
  9. Lesserson JA and Schaefer SD: Instrumentation for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. ENT Journal 73:522-531, 1994.

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